Less than 50 years ago, choosing a floor finish was a very basic decision. The choices have greatly increased since then to include numerous options for both surface and penetrating finishes. With these new choices comes the issue of which finish works best for a given situation, budget, or aesthetic goal.
Understanding the differences between each type of finish will greatly increase the chances of creating that perfect wood floor you’re after.
Factors to Consider
While it may be tempting to buy a finish based on its appearance alone, there are many factors which must be considered before making a final selection. Your lifestyle and how much abuse the floor will see will affect your options. The following are some important variables in choosing the best finish for your floor.
When preparing to buy a finish, you should consider the amount of traffic and general abuse the floor will be handling. A high-traffic region such as a hallway will require a much higher durability finish than one in a guest bedroom, for example. Additionally, heavy furniture can scuff some finishes or even create gouges.
Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are a large grouping of chemicals which can be found in household products such as paints, cosmetics, and finishes. Once present in your home, they release gasses that may or may not be detected by odor. Many of these chemicals create short or long-term health issues. The degree of risk varies from one chemical to the next, and some organic pollutants have no known side effects.
Homes generally have between two and five times more VOCs than outdoor settings, but this may increase to a much as 1,000 times or more while adding or removing paint or finishes. The environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides an article discussing VOCs and their effects.
One of the most important factors in choosing a finish is a matter of aesthetics. The sheen of a finish is how well it shines, and there are four distinct options to select from. Unlike other factors, selecting a specific sheen will not affect the longevity of your floor, although it does affect the appearance of the room, sometimes greatly.
Gloss sheens are best used when you want a highly reflective surface. The benefit is a floor that gives a lot of shine and can reflect natural light throughout a room. However, you should carefully consider the amount of light present in a room before choosing a gloss finish, as too much reflected light could cause headaches or otherwise reduce the visual appeal of the room.
Semi-gloss sheens are perfect for sunny rooms where you want plenty of light reflection but not overwhelmingly so. It’s one step down from a gloss sheen.
Satin finishes are less shiny and have a much lower reflection level. They are perfect for brightly-lit rooms where you want a softer glow.
Sometimes you want the wood to look as close to natural as possible. Matte sheens give minimal light reflection, making them the least visible of all sheen types.
Penetrating finishes function by sinking deep into the wood itself instead of sitting on the surface. These finishes have a low, satin sheen and you are limited in the types of cleaners you can use on them. They also must be periodically reapplied. While not as practical as many modern alternatives, penetrating finishes are still popular in older homes where an authentic look is preferred.
Penetrating Oil Sealer
Oil sealers are a traditional option which is slow-drying (up to 48 hours for each of the three recommended coats) but is easily applied and has low VOC content. This low-sheen finish enhances the natural grain patterns and darkens the wood, making for a beautiful floor. However, oil sealers must be reapplied every two to three years and are not as durable as polyurethane finishes.
Shellac is a natural, non-toxic option which has lost popularity in recent years due to its incompatibility with modern finishes. It is easy to reapply and touch up, but has lower durability than most alternatives. This type of finishing is best reserved for older floors which already have shellac finishing.
Available as acid-cured or water-based, Swedish finishes are often considered the ultimate choice. Highly durable, they bond to the wood to provide a long-lasting, transparent finish. Unfortunately, due to the high toxicity of Swedish finishes, they must be applied professionally. Likewise, you can walk on them in as little as three hours but have to wait up to 60 days for it to fully cure before placing carpet.
Wax is a traditional, low-sheen choice that remains popular today. Applying wax requires some effort, and a base coat of shellac is needed if you don’t want the wood to darken over time. The downsides to wax are the need to refinish occasionally, lower durability than modern polyurethane finishes, and low resistance to stains.
More common than penetrating finishes, a good surface finish can be purchased in a wide variety of sheens and types. These typically require less maintenance and will last longer than wax or other penetrating options.
Far more durable than polyurethane finishes, this option should be left to professionals due to the quick drying times. Due to the high levels of VOCs, you will also need to vacate your home for up to two weeks while waiting for the fumes to dissipate.
In many ways, oil-based polyurethane is the opposite of its water-based alternative. Costing less, it is more durable but takes up to ten hours per coat to dry. It is also less environmentally-friendly and has a stronger odor while drying. Over time, it will yellow slightly, which may or may not compliment the wood, depending on the type your floor is made of.
The most popular choice in modern homes, water-based polyurethane finishes dry in as little as four hours, have very little odor, and don’t yellow over time like their oil-based alternative. It is easy to apply the three to four recommended coats, making this an ideal option for DIYers. It is also one of the most environmentally-friendly options currently available.
When choosing your finish, it is important to weigh various factors. The following chart compares different types of wood floor finishes. Please note that prices are estimated and subject to change based on region, availability, and general market inflation.
|Finish||Type||Application||Cost||Drying Time||Durability||Sheen||VOC Content|
|Moisture-Cured Urethane||Surface||Professional||$2-4 per foot||Fast, but long venting time||Very High||Variable||Very High|
|Oil-Based Polyurethane||Surface||DIY or professional||$30-40 per 400-500 square feet DIY/$12 per foot professional||8-10 Hours per coat||Moderate-High||Variable||High|
|Penetrating Oil Sealer||Penetrating||DIY||$60-70 per 500 feet||24-48 Hours per coat||Low-Moderate||Satin||Low|
|Shellac||Penetrating||DIY||$80-90 per 300 square feet||Low, varies||Low; stains but easy to retouch||Variable||Low|
|Swedish Finish||Penetrating||Professional||Expensive, varies by type||2-3 Hours; up to 60 days to cure||High||Variable||High|
|Water-Based Polyurethane||Surface||DIY||$40-60 per 400-500 square feet||2-4 Hours per coat||Moderate||Variable||Very Low|
|Wax||Penetrating||DIY, Time-consuming||$10-25 per 400-500 square feet||Low, varies||Fair, stains easily||Satin||Low|